Equipment and tools

CETR UMT-3, Universal tribometer

The universal UMT-3 tribometer, can be used for the determination of friction coefficient and wear behaviour. The machine is equipped with a specifically designed heating and cooling apparatus to replicate the thermo-mechanical cycles of the hot forming processes.

Machine characteristics: Normal load: 0-1000N, Speed: 0-300 rev/min, Temperature: 20-1000°C, Disk max diameter: 45mm (Hot) 90mm (Cold), Pin max diameter: 6mm.

Charpy pendulum, Ceast Resil Impactor
Coordinate measuring machine, ZEISS Prismo VAST 7
Digital roughness tester, ZEISS-TSK Surfcom 1400A
Engel E-motion 440/100, Injectio molding machine
FEI Quanta 400, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) allows the determination the chemical composition and structure of the materials, through high energy electron beam in a vacuum. The beam-specimen interaction generates various signals that are acquired by appropriate detectors and subsequently processed to form an image. Magnification range from 6 up to 100’000x.

Accessories: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDS), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM), Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), heating chamber, up to 1500°C, for analyses at high temperature.

Felmi and ATE Egma 30R10 and MFC-12, Induction heating

The induction heating is largely used to heat electrically-conductive materials because it assures a fast, efficient, free flames, aimed and contactless heating process. The generator supplies AC to a coil (the inductor) that generates an electromagnetic filed; positioning the sample in this field, the eddy currents that pass through the material produce an increase of temperature. The heated areas depend on the shape of inductors: different geometrical structures are available to heat tubes, cylindrical specimens and sheets metal. Two generators can be used: Felmi and ATE; they differ in their frequency, high frequency and lower frequency, respectively.

Main characteristics: Felmi’s frequency 50 up to 300 kHz; ATE’s frequency 50 up to 120 kHz.

GOM ARAMIS 5M, Software for 3D deformation optical analysis

Aramis™ software allows evaluating the material behaviour under different testing conditions, no contact is required between the system and the samples and it is material independent. The system calculates the evolution of the deformation evaluating the position change and shape modification of the random points created on the sample surface. This system can be used for both tensile and Nakajima tests. In tensile tests, Aramis™ is employed to obtain the true stress strain curves, that describe the flow behaviour of the material, and to calculate the anisotropy parameters. During Nakajima test, Aramis™ allows obtaining the strain values to identify the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD).

Main characteristics: acquisition rate 1-29 fps, strain measuring range (%) 0.005 up to >2000, strain measuring accuracy (%) up to 0.005, specimen temperature -100 up to 1500°C.

Gleeble 3800, Thermal and mechanical testing system

The Gleeble 3800 is a fully integrated digital closed loop control thermal and mechanical testing system. The direct resistance heating system of the Gleeble 3800 can heat specimens or can hold steady-state equilibrium temperatures. High thermal conductivity grips hold the specimen, making the Gleeble 3800 capable of high cooling rates. The system is a complete, fully integrated hydraulic servo system capable of exerting both compression that tension.

Machine characteristics: Heating and cooling rate up to 2000 °C/s, Compression force up to 20 0 kN, Tensile force up to 100 kN, Displacement rate up to 2000 mm/s.

Hot torsion machine, Cold and Hot torsion test equipment.

Torsion test is a very versatile material-characterization test, which is used both for cold and hot conditions to assess a material rheological behavior for large deformations which are typical of most industrial processes, but which cannot be reached by standard compression tests. Moreover it can be used to assess the material formability in a shear-type stress state, which cannot be attained by standard tensile tests. The experimental apparatus is provided with an induction heating system to heat up the specimen to the target temperature.

Machine characteristics: Max rotation speed: 3000 rpm, Max torque: 240 Nm, Testing temperature range: 20°C-1200°C.

Instron Wilson Rockwell 2000, Rockwell hardness tester.

The Wilson Rockwell 2000 hardness tester allows the measurement of materials hardness based on the Rockwell hardness test principle. The instrument is electronic controlled and can be programmed by means of a control panel in which the hardness scale and other test parameters can be set. The values of the material hardness are automatically calculated by the instrument control and plotted on the screen. High temperatures measurements are feasible thanks to a heating furnace that can heat up the specimens setting controlled heat cycles.

Machine characteristics: Minimum test temperature: ambient, Maximum test temperature: 725°C, Specimen dimensions: 200x200mm.

Instron Wolpert KPX 1500, Static HydraulicSystem.

The Instron Wolpert is designed for high-capacity tension, compression, bend/flex, and shear testing of real scale structural components made of diverse materials as metals, woods and concrete. The machine is provided by hydraulic wedges that can even clamp the dies allowing the simulation of real industrial hot and cold forging processes, behaving as an hydraulic forging press.

Machine characteristics: Load capacity: 1000KN,Test stroke: 610 mm, Maximum testing speed: 203 mm/min, Horizontal test opening: 870 mm.